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3.Class and Object in c++ defining an employee class with data members and  member functions.
 
14:55
Object Oriented Programming, or OOP, is a very popular style of programming, due to its ability to handle more complex applications with a lot more code. This is because it organizes the data into objects that are comparable to real life objects. Class and object are two terms that are commonly used in OOP. In its most basic form, objects are the instantiation of classes. A class contains data field descriptions (or properties, fields, data members, or attributes). These are usually field types and names that will be associated with state variables at program run time; these state variables either belong to the class or specific instances of the class. In most languages, the structure defined by the class determines the layout of the memory used by its instances. Other implementations are possible: for example, objects in Python use associative key-value containers.Some programming languages support specification of invariants as part of the definition of the class, and enforce them through the type system. Encapsulation of state is necessary for being able to enforce the invariants of the class. In object-oriented programming, a class is an extensible program-code-template for creating objects, providing initial values for state (member variables) and implementations of behavior (member functions, methods). In many languages, the class name is used as the name for the class (the template itself), the name for the default constructor of the class (subroutine that creates objects), and as the type of objects generated by the type, and these distinct concepts are easily conflated. In casual use people often refer to the "class" of an object, but narrowly speaking objects have type – the interface, namely the types of member variables, the signatures of member functions (methods), and properties these satisfy – while a class has an implementation (specifically the implementation of the methods), and can create objects of a given type, with a given implementation. In type theory terms, a class is an implementation – a concrete data structure and collection of subroutines – while a type is an interface. Different (concrete) classes can produce objects of the same (abstract) type (depending on type system) – for example, one might implement the type Stack with two classes, SmallStack (fast for small stacks, but scales poorly) and ScalableStack (scales well but high overhead for small stacks). Similarly, a given class may have several different constructors.
Views: 12006 DASARI TUTS
3.Programming Stack Data Structure in c using Structure.
 
37:27
Data structures, as is apparent from the name, is a "good" way of holding data. Before attempting to define good, lets see why such a thing is really needed. Every application or program has its set of requirements. Let's take the classic example of a student database at a university. Say, this database needs to hold information like student particulars, staff particulars and course particulars. The data elements student, staff, and course are not trivial elements, they are made of other elements. For instance, the student element is made up of the name element, the age element, and so on. It would make a lot of sense(and a lot of things easy), to hold all the relevant information together. Same is the case with staff element. The structures which help hold such pieces of related information together is called a data structure. A stack is a data structure that supports first-in-last-out access to elements, meaning the most recently added element is the first to be removed. Stacks have two main operations, namely Push() and Pop(). Push() adds an element to the top of the stack, while Pop() removes the element at the top of the stack. You can think of it as a stack of plates: you can 'push' additional items onto the stack of plates or 'pop' plates from the top of the stack. A Stack is a data type that only allows users to access the newest member of the list. It is analogous to a stack of paper, where you add and remove paper from the top, but never look at the papers below it. A typical Stack implementation supports 2 operations: Push(), Pop(). Push() will add an item to the end of the list. This takes constant time. Pop() will remove the item at the end of the list. This takes constant time. A stack may be implemented to have a bounded capacity. If the stack is full and does not contain enough space to accept an entity to be pushed, the stack is then considered to be in an overflow state. The pop operation removes an item from the top of the stack. A pop either reveals previously concealed items or results in an empty stack, but, if the stack is empty, it goes into underflow state, which means no items are present in stack to be removed. A stack is a restricted data structure, because only a small number of operations are performed on it. The nature of the pop and push operations also means that stack elements have a natural order. Elements are removed from the stack in the reverse order to the order of their addition. Therefore, the lower elements are those that have been on the stack the longest.
Views: 14672 DASARI TUTS
Chattrapathi Shivaji Maharaj song in sanskrit.
 
03:06
|| Jai Bhavani Jai Shivaji || || Jai Hind Jai Maharashtra || || Jai Bhavani Jai Shivaji || || Jai Hind Jai Maharashtra || || Jai Bhavani Jai Shivaji || || Jai Hind Jai Maharashtra || || Jai Bhavani Jai Shivaji || || Jai Hind Jai Maharashtra || || Jai Bhavani Jai Shivaji || || Jai Hind Jai Maharashtra ||
Views: 3615 DASARI TUTS
1. Introduction to C++
 
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C++ (pronounced cee plus plus) is a general purpose programming language. It has imperative, object-oriented and generic programming features, while also providing the facilities for low level memory manipulation.It is designed with a bias for systems programming (e.g. embedded systems, operating system kernels), with performance, efficiency and flexibility of use as its design requirements. C++ has also been found useful in many other contexts, including desktop applications, servers (e.g. e-commerce, web search, SQL), performance critical applications (e.g. telephone switches, space probes) and entertainment software, such as video games. Microsoft Visual Studio ================= Microsoft Visual Studio is an integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft. It is used to develop computer programs for Microsoft Windows superfamily of operating systems, as well as web sites, web applications and web services. Visual Studio uses Microsoft software development platforms such as Windows API, Windows Forms, Windows Presentation Foundation, Windows Store and Microsoft Silverlight. It can produce both native code and managed code. Visual Studio includes a code editor supporting IntelliSense as well as code refactoring. The integrated debugger works both as a source-level debugger and a machine-level debugger. Other built-in tools include a forms designer for building GUI applications, web designer, class designer, and database schema designer. It accepts plug-ins that enhance the functionality at almost every level—including adding support for source-control systems (like Subversion) and adding new toolsets like editors and visual designers for domain-specific languages or toolsets for other aspects of the software development lifecycle (like the Team Foundation Server client: Team Explorer). Visual Studio supports different programming languages and allows the code editor and debugger to support (to varying degrees) nearly any programming language, provided a language-specific service exists. Built-in languages include C, C++ and C++/CLI (via Visual C++), VB.NET (via Visual Basic .NET), C# (via Visual C#), and F# (as of Visual Studio 2010). Support for other languages such as M, Python, and Ruby among others is available via language services installed separately. It also supports XML/XSLT, HTML/XHTML, JavaScript and CSS.
Views: 2504 DASARI TUTS
5.Linked Data Structures in C Creating a SingleList.
 
21:38
Linked lists are among the simplest and most common data structures. They can be used to implement several other common abstract data types, including lists (the abstract data type), stacks, queues, associative arrays, and S-expressions, though it is not uncommon to implement the other data structures directly without using a list as the basis of implementation. The principal benefit of a linked list over a conventional array is that the list elements can easily be inserted or removed without reallocation or reorganization of the entire structure because the data items need not be stored contiguously in memory or on disk, while an array has to be declared in the source code, before compiling and running the program. Linked lists allow insertion and removal of nodes at any point in the list, and can do so with a constant number of operations if the link previous to the link being added or removed is maintained during list traversal. On the other hand, simple linked lists by themselves do not allow random access to the data, or any form of efficient indexing. Thus, many basic operations — such as obtaining the last node of the list (assuming that the last node is not maintained as separate node reference in the list structure), or finding a node that contains a given datum, or locating the place where a new node should be inserted — may require sequential scanning of most or all of the list elements. Advantages of using Linked Lists ========================= Linked lists are a dynamic data structure, allocating the needed memory while the program is running. Insertion and deletion node operations are easily implemented in a linked list. Linear data structures such as stacks and queues are easily executed with a linked list. They can reduce access time and may expand in real time without memory overhead. Disadvantages of using linked lists. ========================== They have a tendency to use more memory due to pointers requiring extra storage space. Nodes in a linked list must be read in order from the beginning as linked lists are inherently sequential access. Nodes are stored incontiguously, greatly increasing the time required to access individual elements within the list. Difficulties arise in linked lists when it comes to reverse traversing. Singly linked lists are extremely difficult to navigate backwards, and while doubly linked lists are somewhat easier to read, memory is wasted in allocating space for a back pointer. Each record of a linked list is often called an 'element' or 'node'.The field of each node that contains the address of the next node is usually called the 'next link' or 'next pointer'. The remaining fields are known as the 'data', 'information', 'value', 'cargo', or 'payload' fields.The 'head' of a list is its first node. The 'tail' of a list may refer either to the rest of the list after the head, or to the last node in the list.
Views: 22860 DASARI TUTS
1.Stack (LIFO) Data Structure in C
 
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A data structure is a way of structuring data so that your chosen algorithm can process the data in an efficient manner, i.e., in such a way as to utilize as little storage space and execution time as possible. There are myriad ways to structure data, however, the most common method by far is the ubiquitous array. Data structures are a necessity for any software engineer.If, by saying "data structures," you are referring to things such as trees, linked lists, hash tables, etc and NOT data types (such as structs and classes), then they offer a couple use advantages. First, data structures can vary in size and can be changed as needed at runtime. This means they can be optimized to fit the user's needs. Next data structures can offer advantages to aid in manipulation of data quickly and easily. Stack ===== A Stack is data structure in which addition of new element or deletion of existing element always takes place at a same end. This end is known as the top of the stack. That means that it is possible to remove elements from a stack in reverse order from the insertion of elements into the stack. Operations on Stacks ================= The stack is basically performed two operations PUSH and POP. Push and pop are the operations that are provided for insertion of an element into the stack and the removal of an element from the stack, respectively. PUSH:- ===== PUSH operation performed for the adding item to the stack. POP:- ==== POP operation performed for removing an item from a stack.
Views: 33738 DASARI TUTS
20.TYPE CASTING IN C PART-1(IMPLICIT TYPE CASTING)
 
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C is widely used in education, in application programs like text editors, windows based applications, in games like Quake III, in calculations like finding interest, and for sorting, maintaining and organizing large amounts of data. C programs are used in engineering applications like plotting of curves, integration and many more things. C has been used in very complex things also, e.g. Operating systems like Microsoft Windows, GNU/Linux and other Unices (SunOS, FreeBSD, et al) have also been written partly in C. C was developed by Denis Ritchie in the 1970s, at the AT&T Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey. Developers of UNIX needed a small and compact language to write their UNIX code. Thus, C was written jointly by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie. The first book on C which gave an informal specification was written by Dennis Ritchie and Brian Kernighan. Brian Kernighan was a computer scientist at AT&T and Bell labs. He is also the author of the famous Hello World program. C Data Types ========== In C, there is a concept called "datatypes". Data types indicate the type of data a variable can hold. When a variable is defined, a memory location will be assigned to the newly defined variable and it will also define the type of data that memory location will hold. C has following data types int - an integer; reflects size of integers on host machine float - single-precision floating point double - double-precision floating point char - character, a single byte In addition to basic data types C also defines certain qualifiers to these data types. Qualifiers are used to make variable declaration more specific to variable uses. Qualifiers available in the C language are: short (applied to integers) long (applied to integers) signed (applied to char, or any integer) unsigned (applied to char, or any integer)
Views: 2391 DASARI TUTS
15.Grabbing Boolean input from keyboard in java
 
10:09
There are different ways of taking input in java like: 1) BufferedReader 2) Scanner 3) Command Line Arguments BufferedReader, on the other hand, is a character stream I/O class. Character streams provide a convenient way for input and output in terms of characters (Unicode). BufferedReader is mostly used for taking input from the console, System.in. It takes an InputStreamReader object as an argument. BufferedReader Read text from a character-input stream, buffering characters so as to provide for the efficient reading of characters, arrays, and lines. A BufferedReader is a simple class meant to efficiently read from the underling stream. Generally, each read request made of a Reader like a FileReader causes a corresponding read request to be made to underlying stream. Each invocation of read() or readLine() could cause bytes to be read from the file, converted into characters, and then returned, which can be very inefficient. Efficiency is improved appreciably if a Reader is warped in a BufferedReader.BufferedReader is synchronized, so read operations on a BufferedReader can safely be done from multiple threads. A scanner on the other hand has a lot more cheese built into it; it can do all that a BufferedReader can do and at the same level of efficiency as well. However, in addition a Scanner can parse the underlying stream for primitive types and strings using regular expressions. It can also tokenize the underlying stream with the delimiter of your choice. It can also do forward scanning of the underlying stream disregarding the delimiter!A scanner however is not thread safe, it has to be externally synchronized. The Scanner class is the complement of Formater class (used to convert binary data into formatted text). Scanner reads formatted input and converts it into its binary form. Although it has always been possible to read formatted input, it required more effort than most programmers would prefer. Because of the addition of Scanner, it is now easy to read all types of numeric values, strings and other types of data, whether it comes from a disk file, the keyboard, or another source. Scanner can be used to read input from the console, a file, a string, or any other source that implements the Readable interface or ReadableByteChannel. For example, you can use Scanner to read a number from the keyboard and assign its value to a variable. The choice of using a BufferedReader or a Scanner depends on the code you are writing, if you are writing a simple log reader Buffered reader is adequate. However if you are writing an XML parser Scanner is the more natural choice.Even while reading the input, if want to accept user input line by line and say just add it to a file, a BufferedReader is good enough. On the other hand if you want to accept user input as a command with multiple options, and then intend to perform different operations based on the command and options specified, a Scanner will suit better.
Views: 1732 DASARI TUTS
8.DOUBLE DATA TYPE IN C
 
11:07
The C programming language is a computer programming language that was developed to do system programming for the operating system UNIX and is an imperative programming language. C was developed in the early 1970 by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie. It is a procedural language, which means that people can write their programs as a series of step-by-step instructions. C is a compiled language. Because the ideas behind C are kept close to the design of the computer, the compiler (program builder) can generate instructions for the computer that will run very fast. The reason its is so fast is because it builds the program in machine code/native code. This makes C a good language for writing operating systems. Many operating systems, including Linux and UNIX, are programmed using this language. The language itself has very few keywords, and most things are done using libraries, which are collections of code for them to be reused. C is available for many different types of computers. This is why C is called a "portable" language. A program that is written in C and that respects certain limitations can be compiled for many different platforms. The syntax of C has also influenced many other programming languages, such as C++, C#, and Java, and many more programming languages we use nowadays. The double type ============= The double and float types are very similar. The float type allows you to store single-precision floating point numbers, while the double keyword allows you to store double-precision floating point numbers – real numbers, in other words, both integer and non-integer values. Its size is typically two machine words, or 8 bytes on most machines. Examples of double literals are 3.1415926535897932, 4.0, 6.022e+23 (scientific notation). If you use 4 instead of 4.0, the 4 will be interpreted as an int. Float vs Double ============= The distinction between floats and doubles was made because of the differing sizes of the two types. When C was first used, space was at a minimum and so the judicious use of a float instead of a double saved some memory. Nowadays, with memory more freely available, you do not really need to conserve memory like this – it may be better to use doubles consistently. Indeed, some C implementations use doubles instead of floats when you declare a float variable.
Views: 3227 DASARI TUTS
2.complex number addition using friend function in c++.
 
17:06
C++ (pronounced as cee plus plus, /ˈsiː/ /plʌs/ /plʌs/) is a general-purpose programming language. It has imperative, object-oriented and generic programming features, while also providing the facilities for low-level memory manipulation.It is designed with a bias toward system programming (e.g., for use in embedded systems or operating system kernels), with performance, efficiency and flexibility of use as its design requirements. C++ has also been found useful in many other contexts, including desktop applications, servers (e.g. e-commerce, web search or SQL servers), performance-critical applications (e.g. telephone switches or space probes), and entertainment software.C++ is a compiled language, with implementations of it available on many platforms and provided by various organizations, including the FSF, LLVM, Microsoft and Intel. Features of c++ ============ Is extremely popular, and therefore lots of support is available. Has a large base of freely available code for download, while also supporting direct integration with ASM and C. Is very powerful, and can be used to create just about any program, including low-level system programs. There is a compiler for C++ on every major operating system. C++ programs that are purposely written for portability will work on many major operating systems with little change in code. C++ is a language which is compiled (transformed from human readable code to low-level machine code), so it can often run faster than languages such as Java, Python, and C#; as it does not depend on an interpreter or a "run-time environment" which must be loaded beforehand. Has a long established usage base that likely guarantees support for the language will continue for quite some time. Many languages are based off of C/C++, such as Java, so knowledge in C++ will make it easier to understand these languages. Has a relatively small associated C++ Standard Library as compared to languages such as Java's Standard Platform SDK or C#'s .NET Framework, permitting greater versatility and reducing the system footprint of resulting compilations. Has been standardized by the International Standards Association as ISO/IEC 14882 with significant versions of the standard released in 1998, 2003 and 2011. Has a significant number of open source libraries available, including the Boost which are freely and widely available.
Views: 11045 DASARI TUTS
13.grabbing character input from keyboard in java.
 
08:33
There are different ways of taking input in java like: 1) BufferedReader 2) Scanner 3) Command Line Arguments BufferedReader, on the other hand, is a character stream I/O class. Character streams provide a convenient way for input and output in terms of characters (Unicode). BufferedReader is mostly used for taking input from the console, System.in. It takes an InputStreamReader object as an argument. BufferedReader Read text from a character-input stream, buffering characters so as to provide for the efficient reading of characters, arrays, and lines. A BufferedReader is a simple class meant to efficiently read from the underling stream. Generally, each read request made of a Reader like a FileReader causes a corresponding read request to be made to underlying stream. Each invocation of read() or readLine() could cause bytes to be read from the file, converted into characters, and then returned, which can be very inefficient. Efficiency is improved appreciably if a Reader is warped in a BufferedReader.BufferedReader is synchronized, so read operations on a BufferedReader can safely be done from multiple threads. A scanner on the other hand has a lot more cheese built into it; it can do all that a BufferedReader can do and at the same level of efficiency as well. However, in addition a Scanner can parse the underlying stream for primitive types and strings using regular expressions. It can also tokenize the underlying stream with the delimiter of your choice. It can also do forward scanning of the underlying stream disregarding the delimiter!A scanner however is not thread safe, it has to be externally synchronized. The Scanner class is the complement of Formater class (used to convert binary data into formatted text). Scanner reads formatted input and converts it into its binary form. Although it has always been possible to read formatted input, it required more effort than most programmers would prefer. Because of the addition of Scanner, it is now easy to read all types of numeric values, strings and other types of data, whether it comes from a disk file, the keyboard, or another source. Scanner can be used to read input from the console, a file, a string, or any other source that implements the Readable interface or ReadableByteChannel. For example, you can use Scanner to read a number from the keyboard and assign its value to a variable. The choice of using a BufferedReader or a Scanner depends on the code you are writing, if you are writing a simple log reader Buffered reader is adequate. However if you are writing an XML parser Scanner is the more natural choice.Even while reading the input, if want to accept user input line by line and say just add it to a file, a BufferedReader is good enough. On the other hand if you want to accept user input as a command with multiple options, and then intend to perform different operations based on the command and options specified, a Scanner will suit better.
Views: 1516 DASARI TUTS
2.Queue (FIFO) Data Structure in C.
 
35:10
Data structures, as is apparent from the name, is a "good" way of holding data. Before attempting to define good, lets see why such a thing is really needed. Every application or program has its set of requirements. Let's take the classic example of a student database at a university. Say, this database needs to hold information like student particulars, staff particulars and course particulars. The data elements student, staff, and course are not trivial elements, they are made of other elements. For instance, the student element is made up of the name element, the age element, and so on. It would make a lot of sense(and a lot of things easy), to hold all the relevant information together. Same is the case with staff element. The structures which help hold such pieces of related information together is called a data structure. A Queue is a data structure where you can only access the oldest item in the list. It is analogous to a line in the grocery store, where many people may be in the line, but the person in the front gets serviced first. A typical Queue implementation has 3 operations, which are similar to the functions in Stacks. They are: enqueue(), dequeue(), and Front(). Enqueue() will add an item to the end of the list. This takes constant time. Dequeue() will remove an item from the beginning of the list. This takes constant time. Front() will return the value of front-most item. Queues, like Stacks, are very fast because all of the operations are simple, and constant-time.
Views: 13654 DASARI TUTS
2.Class and Object in C++ with data members and member function defined inside within the Class
 
18:20
C++ is arguably the most versatile language in common use. C++ allows for both high-performance code as well as expressive abstractions and design constructs. The language is not perfect but it does represent an excellent compromise between these potentially conflicting language capabilities. C++ combines "low-level" programming tailored to specific machine architectures with "high-level" programming, which can allow code to be completely abstracted from any particulars of the machine executing the program. Object Oriented Programming (OOP) is to mean any kind of programming that uses a programming language with some object oriented constructs or programming in an environment where some object oriented principles are followed. At its heart, though, object oriented programming is a mindset which respects programming as a problem-solving dilemma on a grand scale which requires careful application of abstractions and subdividing problems into manageable pieces. Compared with procedural programming, a superficial examination of code written in both styles would reveal that object oriented code tends to be broken down into vast numbers of small pieces, with the hope that each piece will be trivially verifiable. OOP was one step towards the holy grail of software-re-usability, although no new term has gained widespread acceptance, which is why "OOP" is used to mean almost any modern programming distinct from systems programming, assembly programming, functional programming, or database programming. Modern programming would be better categorized as "multi-paradigm" programming, and that term is sometimes used. Loosely, the term object is used to conjure up connections with real world objects like a chair or a guitar. Except that for software, only some simplified abstraction is used, designed specifically for the task at hand. While a real chair is composed of atoms and molecules and reacts to its environment based on the laws of physics and its atomic composition, a "chair object" will vary wildly depending on whether you're writing a game or a Point-of-Sale system for a furniture store. Approaching your problem from the perspective of the chair will not be as productive as approaching the chair from the perspective of your problem. In most OOP languages, this abstracted idea of a chair is called a class (from classification) and is a prototype or blueprint for actually making chairs. The act of making something from the blueprint is often called instantiating, and the made thing is both an object and an instance of the class that served as a blueprint. As humans, we normally tend to do this in reverse —we categorize objects we encounter. We can easily identify chair-like things we run into as being chairs; this classification is where we got the term class in the first place.
Views: 2643 DASARI TUTS
1 Introduction to C Programming on Turbo C
 
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Although ancient, C is the Mother of programming languages. It is not common for software developers to have a background in C now-a-days, however, the languages that dominate the landscape today have their roots in the C Language (Java, C#, Objective-C, C++, Perl, the list goes on). By starting your programming knowledge with the C Language you instantly place yourself in the best position possible to more effectively translate your skills into other languages. First, C was a language for professional programming and systems development rather than a school language. Turbo C competed with other professional programming tools (Microsoft C, Lattice C, Watcom C, etc.). Turbo C did, however, have advantages in speed of compiled code, large project support and price. It is developed in C. 1987: Turbo C 1.0 1987: Turbo C 1.1 1988: Turbo C 1.5 1989: Turbo C 2.0 (now with integrated debugger, also for the Atari ST) 1990: Turbo C++ 1.0 1991: Turbo C++ 1.01 1991: Turbo C++ 2.0 1992: Turbo C++ 3.0 Note on later releases: The name "Turbo C" was not used after version 2.0, because with the release of Turbo C++ 1.0 with 1990, the two products were folded into a single product. That first C++ compiler was developed under contract by a company in San Diego and was one of the first true compilers for C++ (until then, most C++ work was done with pre-compilers that generated C code). The next version was named Borland C++ to emphasize its flagship status and completely rewritten in-house, with Peter Kukol as the lead engineer. The Turbo C++ name was briefly dropped, eventually reappearing as Turbo C++ 3.0. There was never a 2.0 of the Turbo C++ product series.
Views: 15121 DASARI TUTS
How to use Netbeans IDE for Programming XML Files
 
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Many computer systems contain data in incompatible formats. A time-consuming challenge is to exchange data between such systems. XML is a generic data storage format that comes bundled with a number of tools and technologies that should make it easier to exchange specific XML 'applications' between incompatible systems. Since XML is open and generic, it is expected that as time progresses, more and more organizations and people will jump onto the XML bandwagon, both developers and data users. This should make XML the ultimate viable technology for certain types of data exchange. XML is used not only for exchanging information, but also for publishing Web pages. XML's very strict syntax allows for smaller and faster Web browsers and as such is well suited for use with Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) and cellphones. Web browsers that interpret HTML documents, on the other hand, are bloated with programming code to compensate for HTML’s not so strict coding. The types of data generally well suited for encoding as XML are those where field lengths are unknown and unpredictable and where field contents are predominantly textual. An XML schema allows for the exchange of information in a standardized structure. A schema defines custom markup tags that can contain attributes to describe the content that is enclosed by these tags. Information from the tagged data in the XML document can be extracted using an application called a “parser”, and with the use of an XML stylesheet the data can be formatted for a Web page. XML's power lies in the combination of custom markup tags and content in a defined XML document. The purpose of eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is to make information self-describing. Based on SGML, XML is designed to support electronic commerce. The definition of XML, completed in early 1998 by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), describes it as a meta language — a language to generate languages. XML should steadily replace HTML on many Web sites because of some key advantages. The major differences between XML and HTML are captured in the following table. NetBeans is a software development platform written in Java. The NetBeans Platform allows applications to be developed from a set of modular software components called modules. Applications based on the NetBeans Platform, including the NetBeans integrated development environment (IDE), can be extended by third party developers. The NetBeans IDE is primarily intended for development in Java, but also supports other languages, in particular PHP, C/C++ and HTML5. NetBeans is cross-platform and runs on Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, Solaris and other platforms supporting a compatible JVM. The editor supports many languages from Java, C/C++, XML and HTML, to PHP, Groovy, Javadoc, JavaScript and JSP. Because the editor is extensible, you can plug in support for many other languages. The NetBeans Team actively supports the product and seeks feature suggestions from the wider community. Every release is preceded by a time for Community testing and feedback.[5] Over 18 million downloads of the NetBeans IDE to date, and over 800,000 participating developers, the NetBeans project is thriving and continues to grow. A new version was released 8.2/october 3,2016.NetBeans IDE is the official IDE for Java 8. With its editors, code analyzers, and converters, you can quickly and smoothly upgrade your applications to use new Java 8 language constructs, such as lambdas, functional operations, and method references.
Views: 3442 DASARI TUTS
39. FUNCTIONS IN C PART - 7 (PASSING ARRAY AS A POINTER)
 
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screen cast discusses about the passing array in argument as a pointer in functions of c
Views: 2494 DASARI TUTS
19.Inputting a float value in Java using BufferedReader.
 
06:36
There are different ways of taking input in java like: 1) BufferedReader 2) Scanner 3) Command Line Arguments BufferedReader, on the other hand, is a character stream I/O class. Character streams provide a convenient way for input and output in terms of characters (Unicode). BufferedReader is mostly used for taking input from the console, System.in. It takes an InputStreamReader object as an argument. BufferedReader Read text from a character-input stream, buffering characters so as to provide for the efficient reading of characters, arrays, and lines. A BufferedReader is a simple class meant to efficiently read from the underling stream. Generally, each read request made of a Reader like a FileReader causes a corresponding read request to be made to underlying stream. Each invocation of read() or readLine() could cause bytes to be read from the file, converted into characters, and then returned, which can be very inefficient. Efficiency is improved appreciably if a Reader is warped in a BufferedReader.BufferedReader is synchronized, so read operations on a BufferedReader can safely be done from multiple threads. A scanner on the other hand has a lot more cheese built into it; it can do all that a BufferedReader can do and at the same level of efficiency as well. However, in addition a Scanner can parse the underlying stream for primitive types and strings using regular expressions. It can also tokenize the underlying stream with the delimiter of your choice. It can also do forward scanning of the underlying stream disregarding the delimiter!A scanner however is not thread safe, it has to be externally synchronized. The Scanner class is the complement of Formater class (used to convert binary data into formatted text). Scanner reads formatted input and converts it into its binary form. Although it has always been possible to read formatted input, it required more effort than most programmers would prefer. Because of the addition of Scanner, it is now easy to read all types of numeric values, strings and other types of data, whether it comes from a disk file, the keyboard, or another source. Scanner can be used to read input from the console, a file, a string, or any other source that implements the Readable interface or ReadableByteChannel. For example, you can use Scanner to read a number from the keyboard and assign its value to a variable. The choice of using a BufferedReader or a Scanner depends on the code you are writing, if you are writing a simple log reader Buffered reader is adequate. However if you are writing an XML parser Scanner is the more natural choice.Even while reading the input, if want to accept user input line by line and say just add it to a file, a BufferedReader is good enough. On the other hand if you want to accept user input as a command with multiple options, and then intend to perform different operations based on the command and options specified, a Scanner will suit better.
Views: 873 DASARI TUTS
1.Introduction to basic SQL*Plus and SQL commands in oracle 9i
 
20:41
A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model as invented by E. F. Codd, of IBM's San Jose Research Laboratory. Many popular databases currently in use are based on the relational database model.RDBMSs have become a predominant choice for the storage of information in new databases used for financial records, manufacturing and logistical information, personnel data, and much more since the 1980s. Relational databases have often replaced legacy hierarchical databases and network databases because they are easier to understand and use. However, relational databases have been challenged by object databases, which were introduced in an attempt to address the object-relational impedance mismatch in relational database, and XML databases. Object-relational database management system (ORDBMS) ============================================ An object-relational database can be said to provide a middle ground between relational databases and object-oriented databases (OODBMS). In object-relational databases, the approach is essentially that of relational databases: the data resides in the database and is manipulated collectively with queries in a query language; at the other extreme are OODBMSes in which the database is essentially a persistent object store for software written in an object-oriented programming language, with a programming API for storing and retrieving objects, and little or no specific support for querying. Object-relational database management systems grew out of research that occurred in the early 1990s. That research extended existing relational database concepts by adding object concepts. The researchers aimed to retain a declarative query-language based on predicate calculus as a central component of the architecture. Probably the most notable research project, Postgres (UC Berkeley), spawned two products tracing their lineage to that research: Illustra and PostgreSQL. Many of the ideas of early object-relational database efforts have largely become incorporated into SQL:1999 via structured types. In fact, any product that adheres to the object-oriented aspects of SQL:1999 could be described as an object-relational database management product. For example, IBM's DB2, Oracle database, and Microsoft SQL Server, make claims to support this technology and do so with varying degrees of success. SQL(Structures Query Language) ======================== SQL was initially developed at IBM by Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F. Boyce in the early 1970s. This version, initially called SEQUEL (Structured English Query Language), was designed to manipulate and retrieve data stored in IBM's original quasi-relational database management system, System R, which a group at IBM San Jose Research Laboratory had developed during the 1970s.The acronym SEQUEL was later changed to SQL because "SEQUEL" was a trademark of the UK-based Hawker Siddeley aircraft company. SQL*Plus ======= SQL*Plus is a command line SQL and PL/SQL language interface and reporting tool that ships with the Oracle Database Client and Server software. It can be used interactively or driven from scripts. SQL*Plus is frequently used by DBAs and Developers to interact with the Oracle database. If you are familiar with other databases, sqlplus is equivalent to: "sql" in Ingres, "isql" in Sybase and SQL Server, "sqlcmd" in Microsoft SQL Server, "db2" in IBM DB2, "psql" in PostgreSQL, and "mysql" in MySQL.
Views: 45104 DASARI TUTS
HTML 5 hyperlinks - 4(bookmarks) linking to a specific section in another webpage
 
12:47
The HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is used in most pages of the World Wide Web. HTML files contain both the primary text content and additional formatting markup, i.e. sequences of characters that tell web browsers how to display and handle the main content. The markup can specify which parts of text should be bold, where the headings are, or where tables, table rows, and table cells start and end. Though most commonly displayed by a visual web browser, HTML can also be used by browsers that generate audio of the text, by braille readers that convert pages to a braille format, and by accessory programs such as email clients. To author and test HTML pages, you will need an editor and a web browser. HTML can be edited in any plain text editor. Ideally, use one that highlights HTML markup with colors to make it easier to read. Common plain text editors include Notepad (or Notepad++) for Microsoft® Windows, TextEdit for Mac, and Kate, Gedit, Vim, and Emacs for Linux. Many others editors exist with a wide range of features. While some offer WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get) functionality, that means hiding the markup itself and having to auto-generate it. WYSIWYG options are never as clean or transparent or as useful for learning compared with real code-based text editors. To preview your documents, you'll need a web browser. To assure most viewers will see good results, ideally you will test your documents in several browsers. Each browser has slightly different rendering and particular quirks. The most common browsers include Microsoft Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, and Opera. To assure that your documents are readable in a text-only environment, you can test with Lynx. Hyperlinks are the basis of navigation of the internet. They are used for moving around among sections of the same page, for downloading files, and for jumping to pages on other web servers Before we get into creating a hyperlink (or "link" for short), we need to discuss the difference between an Absolute URL and a Relative URL. First, the Absolute URL can be used to direct the browser to any location. For example, an absolute URL might be: https://en.wikibooks.org/ However, when there is a need to create links to multiple objects in the same directory tree as the web page, it is a tiring procedure to repeatedly type out the entire URL of each object being linked to. It also requires substantial work should the webpage move to a new location. This is where Relative URL's come in. They point to a path relative to the current directory of the web page. For example: home.html ./home.html ../home.html This is a relative URL pointing to a HTML file called home.html which resides in the same directory (folder) as the current web page containing the link. Likewise: images/top_banner.jpg Linking to a location within a page with Anchor ====================================== Sometimes specifying a link to a page isn't enough. You might want to link to a specific place within a document. The book analogue of references of this type would be saying "Third paragraph on page 32" as opposed to just saying "page 32". Let's say that you want a link from document a.html to a specific location in a document b.html. Then you start by giving an id to the a particular paragraph in b.html. Special targets ============= _blank A new blank window is opened to load the linked document into. The location in the address bar (if shown in the new window) gives the hyperlink location of the new resource requested by the user's clicking on the hyperlink. _self The current frame that contains the document and the link to be clicked on is used to load the linked document; if the link is part of a document that occupies a whole window then the new document is loaded into the whole window, but in the case of a frame, the linked document is loaded into the current frame. The location won't be shown in the address bar unless the linked document was loaded into the main window as opposed to a child frame of a frameset. _parent The linked document is loaded into the parent frame of the one containing the link to be clicked on; this is only important in nested framesets. If window W contains frameset F consisting of a child frame A and also a child frame B that is itself a frameset FF with "grandchildren" frames C and D (giving us Window W with three visible panes A, C and D), then clicking a hyperlink in the page in frame D with a target=_parent will load the linked document into D's parent frame, that is, into frame B, so replacing frameset FF that was previously defined as the content of frame B. Documents C and D that were the frames of this frameset FF in B will be entirely replaced and this will leave only frame A and the new document from the hyperlink left in frame B, all inside the main frameset F in window W. The location is only shown in the address bar of the window if the parent frame happened to be the window itself.
Views: 2530 DASARI TUTS
6.Class and Object in c++ defining get( ) and set( ) methods to initialize the private members
 
15:15
One of the main reason for preferring C++ over simpler, higher-level programming languages is that C++ allows the development of complex software in a way that makes more efficient use of hardware resources than when using these other languages. The language does not guarantee efficient code automatically, but provides a toolchest that aids programmers in the pursuit of efficiency. Sloppy C++ code may be no more efficient than higher-level implementations of the same algorithms, but a good C++ programmer with knowledge of the language can write software that is efficient from the first cut and then optimize the code further. Often, there is no single solution to a programming problem that is optimal for all cases. Thus, optimization generally does not mean writing optimally performing software; rather, it means incrementally changing (refactoring) software to increase it's performance, bringing it closer to the optimum.Such optimization requires that the software source is written in a sufficiently modular way that performance critical parts can be isolated. With suitably written code, it then requires the use of tools, libraries, knowledge and time to change those parts in a way that increases the overall execution speed of the software. Nowadays, many optimizations are already performed by compilers and are no longer the programmer's burden. This book discusses higher-level optimizations that present-day compilers are not (yet) able to perform.
Views: 1709 DASARI TUTS
8.Single LinkedList part - 4  adding a node after a specific position
 
17:58
Data structures are generally based on the ability of a computer to fetch and store data at any place in its memory, specified by a pointer – a bit string, representing a memory address, that can be itself stored in memory and manipulated by the program. Thus, the array and record data structures are based on computing the addresses of data items with arithmetic operations; while the linked data structures are based on storing addresses of data items within the structure itself. Many data structures use both principles, sometimes combined in non-trivial ways (as in XOR linking).The implementation of a data structure usually requires writing a set of procedures that create and manipulate instances of that structure. The efficiency of a data structure cannot be analyzed separately from those operations. This observation motivates the theoretical concept of an abstract data type, a data structure that is defined indirectly by the operations that may be performed on it, and the mathematical properties of those operations (including their space and time cost). Data structures provide a means to manage large amounts of data efficiently for uses such as large databases and internet indexing services. Usually, efficient data structures are key to designing efficient algorithms. Some formal design methods and programming languages emphasize data structures, rather than algorithms, as the key organizing factor in software design. Storing and retrieving can be carried out on data stored in both main memory and in secondary memory.Different kinds of data structures are suited to different kinds of applications, and some are highly specialized to specific tasks. For example, databases use B-tree indexes for small percentages of data retrieval and compilers and databases use dynamic hash tables as look-up tables. Modern languages also generally support modular programming, the separation between the interface of a library module and its implementation. Some provide opaque data types that allow clients to hide implementation details. Object-oriented programming languages, such as C++, Java and Smalltalk may use classes for this purpose.Most programming languages feature some sort of library mechanism that allows data structure implementations to be reused by different programs. Modern languages usually come with standard libraries that implement the most common data structures. Examples are the C++ Standard Template Library, the Java Collections Framework, and Microsoft's .NET Framework.Most assembly languages and some low-level languages, such as BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language), lack built-in support for data structures. On the other hand, many high-level programming languages and some higher-level assembly languages, such as MASM, have special syntax or other built-in support for certain data structures, such as records and arrays. For example, the C and Pascal languages support structs and records, respectively, in addition to vectors (one-dimensional arrays) and multi-dimensional arrays.
Views: 1840 DASARI TUTS
6. Hyperlinks in HTML 5 part - 3(linking to specific section in a HTML page)
 
19:32
HTML is a markup language used in most of the pages of the World Wide Web. HTML files are text files that, unlike completely plain text, contain additional formatting markup—sequences of characters telling web browsers what parts of text should be bold, where the headings are, or where tables, table rows and table cells start and end. HTML may be displayed by a visual web browser, a browser that reads the text of the page to the user, a braille reader that converts pages to a braille format, an email client, or a wireless device like a cellular phone. Hyperlinks: ======== Hyperlinks are the basis of navigation of the internet. They are used for everything from moving around various bookmarks in the same page, to downloading applications and jumping to web pages on other web servers. Absolute vs. Relative Links ===================== Before we get into creating a hyperlink (or link for short), we need to discuss the difference between an Absolute URL and a Relative URL. First, the Absolute URL can be used to direct the browser to any location. For example, an absolute URL might be : http://www.google.co.za/ However, when there is a need to create links to multiple objects in the same directory tree as the web page, it is a tiring procedure to repeatedly type out the entire URL of each object being linked to. It also requires more work should the web page move to a new location. This is where Relative URL's come in. They point to a path relative to the current directory of the web page. For example: home.html ./home.html ../home.html Linking to a location within a page with Anchor =================================== Sometimes specifying a link to a page isn't enough. You might want to link to a specific place within a document. The book analogue of references of this type would be saying "Third paragraph on page 32" as opposed to just saying "page 32". The anchor tag (< a >) can be used for this too. Let's assume that you want a link from document a.html to a specific location in a document b.html. Then you start by naming the interesting location in b.html. This is done by adding a < a name="some_name" > (where some_name is a string of your choice) tag at the interesting place in b.html. Now that location can be referenced to with < a href="b.html#some_name" > from document a.html. Special targets =========== _blank ===== A new blank window is opened to load the linked document into. The location in the address bar (if shown in the new window) gives the hyperlink location of the new resource requested by the user's clicking on the hyperlink. _self ==== The current frame that contains the document and the link to be clicked on is used to load the linked document; if the link is part of a document that occupies a whole window then the new document is loaded into the whole window, but in the case of a frame, the linked document is loaded into the current frame. The location won't be shown in the address bar unless the linked document was loaded into the main window as opposed to a child frame of a frameset. _parent ====== The linked document is loaded into the parent frame of the one containing the link to be clicked on; this is only important in nested framesets. If window W contains frameset F consisting of a child frame A and also a child frame B that is itself a frameset FF with "grandchildren" frames C and D (giving us Window W with three visible panes A, C and D), then clicking a hyperlink in the page in frame D with a target=_parent will load the linked document into D's parent frame, that is, into frame B, so replacing frameset FF that was previously defined as the content of frame B. Documents C and D that were the frames of this frameset FF in B will be entirely replaced and this will leave only frame A and the new document from the hyperlink left in frame B, all inside the main frameset F in window W. The location is only shown in the address bar of the window if the parent frame happened to be the window itself. _top === The linked document is loaded into the window, replacing all files currently displayed in the window in whatever frames they may be found in. The location at the top of the window, in the address/location bar is seen to point to the linked document once the hyperlink is clicked.
Views: 20696 DASARI TUTS
Linear Search on an Array in C.
 
10:36
Linear search or sequential search is a method for finding a particular value in a list that checks each element in sequence until the desired element is found or the list is exhausted.The list need not be ordered.Linear search is the simplest search algorithm; it is a special case of brute-force search. Its worst case cost is proportional to the number of elements in the list. Its expected cost is also proportional to the number of elements if all elements are searched equally. If the list has more than a few elements and is searched often, then more complicated search methods such as binary search or hashing may be appropriate. Those methods have faster search times but require additional resources to attain that speed. Linear search is usually very simple to implement, and is practical when the list has only a few elements, or when performing a single search in an unordered list.When many values have to be searched in the same list, it often pays to pre-process the list in order to use a faster method. For example, one may sort the list and use binary search, or build any efficient search data structure from it. Should the content of the list change frequently, repeated re-organization may be more trouble than it is worth.As a result, even though in theory other search algorithms may be faster than linear search (for instance binary search), in practice even on medium-sized arrays (around 100 items or less) it might be infeasible to use anything else. On larger arrays, it only makes sense to use other, faster search methods if the data is large enough, because the initial time to prepare (sort) the data is comparable to many linear searches. The performance of linear search improves if the desired value is more likely to be near the beginning of the list than to its end. Therefore, if some values are much more likely to be searched than others, it is desirable to place them at the beginning of the list.In particular, when the list items are arranged in order of decreasing probability, and these probabilities are geometrically distributed, the cost of linear search is only O(1). If the table size n is large enough, linear search will be faster than binary search, whose cost is O(log n). The worst case performance scenario for a linear search is that it needs to loop through the entire collection; either because the item is the last one, or because the item isn't found. In other words, if you have N items in your collection, the worst case scenario to find an item is N iterations. This is known as O(N) using the Big O Notation. The speed of search grows linearly with the number of items within your collection.In some cases, you'll know ahead of time that some items will be dis-proportionally searched for. In such situations, frequently requested items can be kept at the start of the collection. This can result in exceptional performance, regardless of size, for these frequently requested items.
Views: 1727 DASARI TUTS
47.Dynamic Memory Allocation in C part - 1( malloc( ) )
 
12:32
screen cast discusses about the dynamic memory allocation in c using malloc( ) function
Views: 611 DASARI TUTS
Java  Introduction cove Java vs Adv.Java and J2SE, vs J2EE vs J2ME.
 
04:50
Java is a programming language. It was first developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems, which is now a part of Oracle Corporation. It was released in 1995 as a part of Sun Microsystems' Java platform. The language has developed much of its syntax from C and C++. Java applications are usually compiled to bytecode (class file) that can run on any Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Java is currently one of the most popular programming languages being used. It has about 10 million users. The primary goals in the creation of the Java language: ============================================= It is simple. It is object-oriented. It is independent of the host platform. It contains language facilities and libraries for networking. It is designed to execute code from remote sources securely. The Java language introduces some new features that did not exist in other languages like C and C++. Initial Release versions 1.0 and 1.1 ============================= Introduced in 1996 for the Solaris, Windows, Mac OS Classic and Linux, Java was initially released as the Java Development Kit 1.0 (JDK 1.0). This included the Java runtime (the virtual machine and the class libraries), and the development tools (e.g., the Java compiler). Later, Sun also provided a runtime-only package, called the Java Runtime Environment (JRE). The first name stuck, however, so usually people refer to a particular version of Java by its JDK version (e.g., JDK 1.0). Spider version 1.8.0; Java SE 8 ========================= Java 8 was released on 18 March 2014, and included some features that were planned for Java 7 but later deferred.Work on features was organized in terms of JDK Enhancement Proposals (JEPs).JSR 335, JEP 126: Language-level support for lambda expressions (officially, lambda expressions; unofficially, closures) under Project Lambda which allow the addition of methods to interfaces without breaking existing implementations. There was an ongoing debate in the Java community on whether to add support for lambda expressions. Supporting lambda expressions also allows the performance of functional-style operations on streams of elements, such as MapReduce-inspired transformations on collections. Default methods allow an author of an API to add new methods to an interface without breaking the old code using it. Although it was not their primary intent, default methods also allow multiple inheritance of behavior (but not state). JSR 223, JEP 174: Project Nashorn, a JavaScript runtime which allows developers to embed JavaScript code within applications JSR 308, JEP 104: Annotation on Java Types Unsigned Integer Arithmetic JSR 337, JEP 120: Repeating annotations JSR 310, JEP 150: Date and Time API JEP 178: Statically-linked JNI libraries JEP 153: Launch JavaFX applications (direct launching of JavaFX application JARs) JEP 122: Remove the permanent generation In most people's opinions, Java technology delivers reasonably well on all these goals. The language is not, however, without drawbacks. Java tends to be more high-level than similar languages (such as C++), which means that the Java language lacks features such as hardware-specific data types, low-level pointers to arbitrary memory addresses, or programming methods like operator overloading. Although these features are frequently abused or misused by programmers, they are also powerful tools. However, Java technology includes Java Native Interface (JNI), a way to call native code from Java language code. With JNI, it is still possible to use some of these features. Some programmers also complain about its lack of multiple inheritance, a powerful feature of several object-oriented languages, among others C++. The Java language separates inheritance of type and implementation, allowing inheritance of multiple type definitions through interfaces, but only single inheritance of type implementation via class hierarchies. This allows most of the benefits of multiple inheritance while avoiding many of its dangers. In addition, through the use of concrete classes, abstract classes, as well as interfaces, a Java language programmer has the option of choosing full, partial, or zero implementation for the object type he defines, thus ensuring maximum flexibility in application design. There are some who believe that for certain projects, object orientation makes work harder instead of easier. This particular complaint is not unique to the Java language but applies to other object-oriented languages as well.
Views: 2128 DASARI TUTS
35.FUNCTIONS IN C PART- 3(FUNCTIONS WITH PARAMETERS)
 
15:35
SCREEN CAST DISCUSSES ABOUT FUNCTION WITH PARAMETERS
Views: 157 DASARI TUTS
3.Integer Data Type in C Part-1
 
10:48
The int type stores integers in the form of "whole numbers". An integer is typically the size of one machine word, which on most modern home PCs is 32 bits (4 octets). Examples of literals are whole numbers (integers) such as 1,2,3, 10, 100... When int is 32 bits (4 octets), it can store any whole number (integer) between -2147483648 and 2147483647. A 32 bit word (number) has the possibility of representing any one number out of 4294967296 possibilities (2 to the power of 32). If you want to declare a new int variable, use the int keyword. For example: int numberOfStudents, i, j=5;
Views: 1512 DASARI TUTS
17.To read a String as input from keyboard in console output using BufferedReader class in java
 
08:24
There are different ways of taking input in java like: 1) BufferedReader 2) Scanner 3) Command Line Arguments BufferedReader, on the other hand, is a character stream I/O class. Character streams provide a convenient way for input and output in terms of characters (Unicode). BufferedReader is mostly used for taking input from the console, System.in. It takes an InputStreamReader object as an argument. BufferedReader Read text from a character-input stream, buffering characters so as to provide for the efficient reading of characters, arrays, and lines. A BufferedReader is a simple class meant to efficiently read from the underling stream. Generally, each read request made of a Reader like a FileReader causes a corresponding read request to be made to underlying stream. Each invocation of read() or readLine() could cause bytes to be read from the file, converted into characters, and then returned, which can be very inefficient. Efficiency is improved appreciably if a Reader is warped in a BufferedReader.BufferedReader is synchronized, so read operations on a BufferedReader can safely be done from multiple threads. A scanner on the other hand has a lot more cheese built into it; it can do all that a BufferedReader can do and at the same level of efficiency as well. However, in addition a Scanner can parse the underlying stream for primitive types and strings using regular expressions. It can also tokenize the underlying stream with the delimiter of your choice. It can also do forward scanning of the underlying stream disregarding the delimiter!A scanner however is not thread safe, it has to be externally synchronized. The Scanner class is the complement of Formater class (used to convert binary data into formatted text). Scanner reads formatted input and converts it into its binary form. Although it has always been possible to read formatted input, it required more effort than most programmers would prefer. Because of the addition of Scanner, it is now easy to read all types of numeric values, strings and other types of data, whether it comes from a disk file, the keyboard, or another source. Scanner can be used to read input from the console, a file, a string, or any other source that implements the Readable interface or ReadableByteChannel. For example, you can use Scanner to read a number from the keyboard and assign its value to a variable. The choice of using a BufferedReader or a Scanner depends on the code you are writing, if you are writing a simple log reader Buffered reader is adequate. However if you are writing an XML parser Scanner is the more natural choice.Even while reading the input, if want to accept user input line by line and say just add it to a file, a BufferedReader is good enough. On the other hand if you want to accept user input as a command with multiple options, and then intend to perform different operations based on the command and options specified, a Scanner will suit better.
Views: 1270 DASARI TUTS
3.complex number addition using binary operator + overloading in c++.
 
22:09
Operator overloading (less commonly known as ad-hoc polymorphism) is a specific case of polymorphism (part of the OO nature of the language) in which some or all operators like +, = or == are treated as polymorphic functions and as such have different behaviors depending on the types of its arguments. Operator overloading is usually only syntactic sugar. It can easily be emulated using function calls.Operator overloading can provide more than an aesthetic benefit, since the language allows operators to be invoked implicitly in some circumstances. Problems, and critics, to the use of operator overloading arise because it allows programmers to give operators completely free functionality, without an imposition of coherency that permits to consistently satisfy user/reader expectations. Operator overloading should only be utilized when the meaning of the overloaded operator's operation is unambiguous and practical for the underlying type and where it would offer a significant notational brevity over appropriately named function calls.Not all operators may be overloaded, new operators cannot be created, and the precedence, associativity or arity of operators cannot be changed (for example ! cannot be overloaded as a binary operator). Most operators may be overloaded as either a member function or non-member function, some, however, must be defined as member functions. Operators should only be overloaded where their use would be natural and unambiguous, and they should perform as expected. For example, overloading + to add two complex numbers is a good use, whereas overloading * to push an object onto a vector would not be considered good style. Not all operators may be overloaded, new operators cannot be created, and the precedence, associativity or arity of operators cannot be changed (for example ! cannot be overloaded as a binary operator). Most operators may be overloaded as either a member function or non-member function, some, however, must be defined as member functions. Operators should only be overloaded where their use would be natural and unambiguous, and they should perform as expected. For example, overloading + to add two complex numbers is a good use, whereas overloading * to push an object onto a vector would not be considered good style. Operators which cannot be overloaded ============================ ?: (conditional) . (member selection) * (member selection with pointer-to-member) :: (scope resolution) sizeof (object size information) typeid (object type information)
Views: 3410 DASARI TUTS
Oracle  9i/10g Introduction to basic SQL commands.
 
11:42
A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model as invented by E. F. Codd, of IBM's San Jose Research Laboratory. Many popular databases currently in use are based on the relational database model.RDBMSs have become a predominant choice for the storage of information in new databases used for financial records, manufacturing and logistical information, personnel data, and much more since the 1980s. Relational databases have often replaced legacy hierarchical databases and network databases because they are easier to understand and use. However, relational databases have been challenged by object databases, which were introduced in an attempt to address the object-relational impedance mismatch in relational database, and XML databases. Object-relational database management system (ORDBMS) ============================================ An object-relational database can be said to provide a middle ground between relational databases and object-oriented databases (OODBMS). In object-relational databases, the approach is essentially that of relational databases: the data resides in the database and is manipulated collectively with queries in a query language; at the other extreme are OODBMSes in which the database is essentially a persistent object store for software written in an object-oriented programming language, with a programming API for storing and retrieving objects, and little or no specific support for querying. Object-relational database management systems grew out of research that occurred in the early 1990s. That research extended existing relational database concepts by adding object concepts. The researchers aimed to retain a declarative query-language based on predicate calculus as a central component of the architecture. Probably the most notable research project, Postgres (UC Berkeley), spawned two products tracing their lineage to that research: Illustra and PostgreSQL. Many of the ideas of early object-relational database efforts have largely become incorporated into SQL:1999 via structured types. In fact, any product that adheres to the object-oriented aspects of SQL:1999 could be described as an object-relational database management product. For example, IBM's DB2, Oracle database, and Microsoft SQL Server, make claims to support this technology and do so with varying degrees of success. SQL(Structures Query Language) ======================== SQL was initially developed at IBM by Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F. Boyce in the early 1970s. This version, initially called SEQUEL (Structured English Query Language), was designed to manipulate and retrieve data stored in IBM's original quasi-relational database management system, System R, which a group at IBM San Jose Research Laboratory had developed during the 1970s.The acronym SEQUEL was later changed to SQL because "SEQUEL" was a trademark of the UK-based Hawker Siddeley aircraft company. SQL*Plus ======= SQL*Plus is a command line SQL and PL/SQL language interface and reporting tool that ships with the Oracle Database Client and Server software. It can be used interactively or driven from scripts. SQL*Plus is frequently used by DBAs and Developers to interact with the Oracle database. If you are familiar with other databases, sqlplus is equivalent to: "sql" in Ingres, "isql" in Sybase and SQL Server, "sqlcmd" in Microsoft SQL Server, "db2" in IBM DB2, "psql" in PostgreSQL, and "mysql" in MySQL.
Views: 1820 DASARI TUTS
2.Application Development Using Java Technologies Java EE vs Java SE
 
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Java is a programming language. It was first developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems, which is now a part of Oracle Corporation. It was released in 1995 as a part of Sun Microsystems' Java platform. The language has developed much of its syntax from C and C++. Java applications are usually compiled to bytecode (class file) that can run on any Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Java is currently one of the most popular programming languages being used. It has about 10 million users. There are many types of Java programs: ================================== Java Applet - small program written in Java and that is downloaded from a website and executed within a web browser on a client computer. Application - executes on a client computer. If online, it has to be downloaded before being run. JAR file (Java ARchive) - used to package Java files together into a single file (almost exactly like a .zip file). Servlet - runs on a web server and helps to generate web pages. Swing application - used to build an application that has a GUI (windows, buttons, menus, etc.). EJB - runs on a web server and is used to develop large, complex websites. Java is commonly used to teach students how to program as a first language, yet is still also used by professionals. Java requires that each variable be initialized. Some older languages such as C, allow variables to go uninitialized, which can cause random failures with mysterious bugs. Java requires that each method that declares a return type, always return a value. This also prevents bugs. Java comes with a large set of classes and methods, the Java API that can be used without having to develop as much code "from scratch". Unlike C, Java primitive types, such as int, are always the same size in the number of bits which helps achieve cross-platform compatibility. Java used to be thought of as being slower than C, but that's less important in recent years with computers being faster. Java has exception-handling that requires a programmer to handle error-conditions such an Input/Output errors. Code compiled on one Java platform can be run on other platforms that support Java without modification of either the source-code nor the byte-code. For example, this means that a person can make a Java program for a Windows computer and have it run a Linux computer or a Mac computer. Java was developed to achieve 5 main goals. ===================================== It should be simple, object-oriented, distributed and easy to learn. It should be robust and secure. It should be independent of a given computer architecture or platform. It should be very performant. It should be possible to write an interpreter for the language. The language should also support parallelism and use dynamic typing. Java is object oriented. Unchanged C++ or C code will not work in Java, in most cases, though Java looks much like C and C++.Java can run on many different operating systems. This makes Java platform independent. Java does this by making the Java compiler turn code into Java bytecode instead of machine code. This means that when the program is executed, the Java Virtual Machine interprets the bytecode and translates it into machine code. The Java platform refers to a group of software products from Sun Microsystems. The platform is used to develop and run Java programs. The platform includes the execution engine (called a Java Virtual Machine) that allows Java programs to do the same thing on different computer systems.This capability of being able to develop software on one platform and running it on other platforms is called "cross-platform capability".
Views: 844 DASARI TUTS
2.free( ) function to free the memory allocated using malloc( ).
 
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The C programming language manages memory statically, automatically, or dynamically. Static-duration variables are allocated in main memory, usually along with the executable code of the program, and persist for the lifetime of the program; automatic-duration variables are allocated on the stack and come and go as functions are called and return. For static-duration and automatic-duration variables, the size of the allocation must be compile-time constant (except for the case of variable-length automatic arrays[5]). If the required size is not known until run-time (for example, if data of arbitrary size is being read from the user or from a disk file), then using fixed-size data objects is inadequate. The lifetime of allocated memory can also cause concern. Neither static- nor automatic-duration memory is adequate for all situations. Automatic-allocated data cannot persist across multiple function calls, while static data persists for the life of the program whether it is needed or not. In many situations the programmer requires greater flexibility in managing the lifetime of allocated memory.These limitations are avoided by using dynamic memory allocation in which memory is more explicitly (but more flexibly) managed, typically, by allocating it from the free store (informally called the "heap"), an area of memory structured for this purpose. In C, the library function malloc is used to allocate a block of memory on the heap. The program accesses this block of memory via a pointer that malloc returns. When the memory is no longer needed, the pointer is passed to free which deallocates the memory so that it can be used for other purposes.
Views: 935 DASARI TUTS
18.Getting an integer as input from keyboad in console output using BufferedReader class in java
 
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There are different ways of taking input in java like: 1) BufferedReader 2) Scanner 3) Command Line Arguments BufferedReader, on the other hand, is a character stream I/O class. Character streams provide a convenient way for input and output in terms of characters (Unicode). BufferedReader is mostly used for taking input from the console, System.in. It takes an InputStreamReader object as an argument. BufferedReader Read text from a character-input stream, buffering characters so as to provide for the efficient reading of characters, arrays, and lines. A BufferedReader is a simple class meant to efficiently read from the underling stream. Generally, each read request made of a Reader like a FileReader causes a corresponding read request to be made to underlying stream. Each invocation of read() or readLine() could cause bytes to be read from the file, converted into characters, and then returned, which can be very inefficient. Efficiency is improved appreciably if a Reader is warped in a BufferedReader.BufferedReader is synchronized, so read operations on a BufferedReader can safely be done from multiple threads. A scanner on the other hand has a lot more cheese built into it; it can do all that a BufferedReader can do and at the same level of efficiency as well. However, in addition a Scanner can parse the underlying stream for primitive types and strings using regular expressions. It can also tokenize the underlying stream with the delimiter of your choice. It can also do forward scanning of the underlying stream disregarding the delimiter!A scanner however is not thread safe, it has to be externally synchronized. The Scanner class is the complement of Formater class (used to convert binary data into formatted text). Scanner reads formatted input and converts it into its binary form. Although it has always been possible to read formatted input, it required more effort than most programmers would prefer. Because of the addition of Scanner, it is now easy to read all types of numeric values, strings and other types of data, whether it comes from a disk file, the keyboard, or another source. Scanner can be used to read input from the console, a file, a string, or any other source that implements the Readable interface or ReadableByteChannel. For example, you can use Scanner to read a number from the keyboard and assign its value to a variable. The choice of using a BufferedReader or a Scanner depends on the code you are writing, if you are writing a simple log reader Buffered reader is adequate. However if you are writing an XML parser Scanner is the more natural choice.Even while reading the input, if want to accept user input line by line and say just add it to a file, a BufferedReader is good enough. On the other hand if you want to accept user input as a command with multiple options, and then intend to perform different operations based on the command and options specified, a Scanner will suit better.
Views: 3722 DASARI TUTS
7.Single Linked List in C adding a node at the end.
 
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A linked list is a collection of structures ordered not by their physical placement in memory but by logical links that are stored as part of the data in the structure itself. It is not necessary that it should be stored in the adjacent memory locations. Every structure has a data field and an address field. The Address field contains the address of its successor.Linked list can be singly, doubly or multiply linked and can either be linear or circular. In linked data structures, the links are usually treated as special data types that can only be dereferenced or compared for equality. Linked data structures are thus contrasted with arrays and other data structures that require performing arithmetic operations on pointers. This distinction holds even when the nodes are actually implemented as elements of a single array, and the references are actually array indices: as long as no arithmetic is done on those indices, the data structure is essentially a linked one. Example in C =========== struct node { int val; struct node *next; }; In an array, the array elements have to be in a contiguous (connected and sequential) portion of memory. But in a linked data structure, the reference to each node gives users the information needed to find the next one. The nodes of a linked data structure can also be moved individually to different locations without affecting the logical connections between them, unlike arrays. With due care, a process can add or delete nodes to one part of a data structure even while other processes are working on other parts. Compared to arrays, linked data structures allow more flexibility in organizing the data and in allocating space for it. In arrays, the size of the array must be specified precisely at the beginning, which can be a potential waste of memory. A linked data structure is built dynamically and never needs to be bigger than the programmer requires. It also requires no guessing in terms of how much space must be allocated when using a linked data structure. This is a feature that is key in saving wasted memory.
Views: 2510 DASARI TUTS
5.Java Short Data Type
 
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Primitive types are the most basic data types available within the Java language. There are 8: boolean, byte, char, short, int, long, float and double. These types serve as the building blocks of data manipulation in Java. Such types serve only one purpose — containing pure, simple values of a kind. Because these data types are defined into the Java type system by default, they come with a number of operations predefined. You can not define a new operation for such primitive types. In the Java type system, there are three further categories of primitives: Numeric primitives: short, int, long, float and double. These primitive data types hold only numeric data. Operations associated with such data types are those of simple arithmetic (addition, subtraction, etc.) or of comparisons (is greater than, is equal to, etc.) Textual primitives: byte and char. These primitive data types hold characters (that can be Unicode alphabets or even numbers). Operations associated with such types are those of textual manipulation (comparing two words, joining characters to make words, etc.). However, byte and char can also support arithmetic operations. Boolean and null primitives: boolean and null.
Views: 194 DASARI TUTS
4.Formatting Output in c++ part-1
 
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Output manipulators control the format of the output stream. Include "iomanip" if you use any manipulators that have parameters; the others are already included with "iostream". The Range column tells how long the manipulator will take effect: now inserts something at that point, next affects only the next data element, and all affects all subsequent data elements for the output stream. setw(n) ===== Sets minimum field width on output. This sets the minimum size of the field - a larger number will use more columns. Applies only to the next element inserted in the output. Use left and right to justify the data appropriately in the field. Output is right justified by default. Equivalent to cout.width(n); To print a column of right justified numbers in a seven column field: setprecision(n) =========== Sets the number of digits printed to the right of the decimal point. This applies to all subsequent floating point numbers written to that output stream. However, this won't make floating-point "integers" print with a decimal point. It's necessary to use fixed for that effect. Equivalent to cout.precision(n); setfill(ch) ====== Only useful after setw. If a value does not entirely fill a field, the character ch will be used to fill in the other characters. Default value is blank. Same effects as cout.fill(ch) For example, to print a number in a 4 character field with leading zeros (eg, 0007):akka
Views: 5140 DASARI TUTS
Circular Queue Data Structure in C.
 
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Theoretically, one characteristic of a queue is that it does not have a specific capacity. Regardless of how many elements are already contained, a new element can always be added. It can also be empty, at which point removing an element will be impossible until a new element has been added again.Fixed length arrays are limited in capacity, but it is not true that items need to be copied towards the head of the queue. The simple trick of turning the array into a closed circle and letting the head and tail drift around endlessly in that circle makes it unnecessary to ever move items stored in the array. If n is the size of the array, then computing indices modulo n will turn the array into a circle. This is still the conceptually simplest way to construct a queue in a high level language, but it does admittedly slow things down a little, because the array indices must be compared to zero and the array size, which is comparable to the time taken to check whether an array index is out of bounds, which some languages do, but this will certainly be the method of choice for a quick and dirty implementation, or for any high level language that does not have pointer syntax. The array size must be declared ahead of time, but some implementations simply double the declared array size when overflow occurs. Most modern languages with objects or pointers can implement or come with libraries for dynamic lists. Such data structures may have not specified fixed capacity limit besides memory constraints. Queue overflow results from trying to add an element onto a full queue and queue underflow happens when trying to remove an element from an empty queue. In computer science, a queue is a particular kind of abstract data type or collection in which the entities in the collection are kept in order and the principal (or only) operations on the collection are the addition of entities to the rear terminal position, known as enqueue, and removal of entities from the front terminal position, known as dequeue. This makes the queue a First-In-First-Out (FIFO) data structure. In a FIFO data structure, the first element added to the queue will be the first one to be removed. This is equivalent to the requirement that once a new element is added, all elements that were added before have to be removed before the new element can be removed. Often a peek or front operation is also entered, returning the value of the front element without dequeuing it. A queue is an example of a linear data structure, or more abstractly a sequential collection. Arrays are among the oldest and most important data structures, and are used by almost every program. They are also used to implement many other data structures, such as lists and strings. They effectively exploit the addressing logic of computers. In most modern computers and many external storage devices, the memory is a one-dimensional array of words, whose indices are their addresses. Processors, especially vector processors, are often optimized for array operations. Arrays are useful mostly because the element indices can be computed at run time. Among other things, this feature allows a single iterative statement to process arbitrarily many elements of an array. For that reason, the elements of an array data structure are required to have the same size and should use the same data representation. The set of valid index tuples and the addresses of the elements (and hence the element addressing formula) are usually, but not always,fixed while the array is in use. The term array is often used to mean array data type, a kind of data type provided by most high-level programming languages that consists of a collection of values or variables that can be selected by one or more indices computed at run-time. Array types are often implemented by array structures; however, in some languages they may be implemented by hash tables, linked lists, search trees, or other data structures.
Views: 5053 DASARI TUTS
51.STRUCTURES IN C PART - 3(POINTERS TO STRUCTURES)
 
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screen cast discusses about how pointer to a structure operates in c
Views: 947 DASARI TUTS
Java Source File Structure
 
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Java is a programming language. It was first developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems, which is now a part of Oracle Corporation. It was released in 1995 as a part of Sun Microsystems' Java platform. The language has developed much of its syntax from C and C++. Java applications are usually compiled to bytecode (class file) that can run on any Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Java is currently one of the most popular programming languages being used. It has about 10 million users. Java was developed to achieve 5 main goals. These are It should be simple, object-oriented, distributed and easy to learn. It should be robust and secure. It should be independent of a given computer architecture or platform. It should be very performant. It should be possible to write an interpreter for the language. The language should also support parallelism and use dynamic typing. There are many types of Java programs which run differently: Java Applet - small program written in Java and that is downloaded from a website and executed within a web browser on a client computer. Application - executes on a client computer. If online, it has to be downloaded before being run. JAR file (Java ARchive) - used to package Java files together into a single file (almost exactly like a .zip file). Servlet - runs on a web server and helps to generate web pages. Swing application - used to build an application that has a GUI (windows, buttons, menus, etc.). EJB - runs on a web server and is used to develop large, complex websites. Java is commonly used to teach students how to program as a first language, yet is still also used by professionals. Java requires that each variable be initialized. Some older languages such as C, allow variables to go uninitialized, which can cause random failures with mysterious bugs. Java requires that each method that declares a return type, always return a value. This also prevents bugs. Java comes with a large set of classes and methods, the Java API that can be used without having to develop as much code "from scratch". Unlike C, Java primitive types, such as int, are always the same size in the number of bits which helps achieve cross-platform compatibility. Java used to be thought of as being slower than C, but that's less important in recent years with computers being faster. Java has exception-handling that requires a programmer to handle error-conditions such an Input/Output errors. Code compiled on one Java platform can be run on other platforms that support Java without modification of either the source-code nor the byte-code. For example, this means that a person can make a Java program for a Windows computer and have it run a Linux computer or a Mac computer.
Views: 582 DASARI TUTS
5.Generating random numbers between 1 to 100 storing in an array using for loop
 
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C is widely used in education, in application programs like text editors, windows based applications, in games like Quake III, in calculations like finding interest, and for sorting, maintaining and organizing large amounts of data. C programs are used in engineering applications like plotting of curves, integration and many more things. C has been used in very complex things also, e.g. Operating systems like Microsoft Windows, GNU/Linux and other Unices (SunOS, FreeBSD, et al) have also been written partly in C. C was developed by Denis Ritchie in the 1970s, at the AT&T Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey. Developers of UNIX needed a small and compact language to write their UNIX code. Thus, C was written jointly by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie. The first book on C which gave an informal specification was written by Dennis Ritchie and Brian Kernighan. Brian Kernighan was a computer scientist at AT&T and Bell labs. He is also the author of the famous Hello World program.
Views: 23262 DASARI TUTS
2. Variables in C
 
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Variable names in C are made up of letters (upper and lower case) and digits. The underscore character ("_") is also permitted. Names must not begin with a digit. Unlike some languages (such as Perl and some BASIC dialects), C does not use any special prefix characters on variable names. In addition there are certain sets of names that, while not language keywords, are reserved for one reason or another. For example, a C compiler might use certain names "behind the scenes", and this might cause problems for a program that attempts to use them. Also, some names are reserved for possible future use in the C standard library. The rules for determining exactly what names are reserved (and in what contexts they are reserved) are too complicated to describe here[citation needed], and as a beginner you don't need to worry about them much anyway. For now, just avoid using names that begin with an underscore character. Rules for declaring Variables in C : =========================== 1)The 1st letter should be alphabet. 2)Variables can be combination of alphabets and digits. 3)Underscore ( _ ) is the only special character allowed. 4)Variables can be written in both Uppercase and Lowercase or combination of both. 5)Variables are Case Sensitive. 6)No Spaces allowed between Characters. 7)Variable name should not make use to the C Reserved Keywords. 8)Variable name should not start with a number. Some examples of valid C variable names: ================================= foo Bar BAZ foo_bar _foo42 _ QuUx Some examples of invalid C variable names: =================================== 2foo (must not begin with a digit) my foo (spaces not allowed in names) $foo ($ not allowed -- only letters, digits, and _) while (language keywords cannot be used as names)
Views: 1201 DASARI TUTS
2.MYSQL Setting Path in the Environment Variable
 
06:57
MySQL is a popular choice of database for use in web applications, and is a central component of the widely used LAMP open source web application software stack (and other 'AMP' stacks). LAMP is an acronym for "Linux, Apache, MySQL, Perl/PHP/Python." Free-software-open source projects that require a full-featured database management system often use MySQL. The MySQL™ software delivers a very fast, multi-threaded, multi-user, and robust SQL (Structured Query Language) database server. MySQL Server is intended for mission-critical, heavy-load production systems as well as for embedding into mass-deployed software. Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates. MySQL is a trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates, and shall not be used by Customer without Oracle's express written authorization. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. MySQL is a relational database management system (RDBMS), and ships with no GUI tools to administer MySQL databases or manage data contained within the databases. Users may use the included command line tools,or use MySQL "front-ends", desktop software and web applications that create and manage MySQL databases, build database structures, back up data, inspect status, and work with data records.The official set of MySQL front-end tools, MySQL Workbench is actively developed by Oracle, and is freely available for use.The official set of MySQL front-end tools,MySQL Workbench is actively developed by Oracle, and is freely available for use. XAMPP Installer ============ XAMPP also provides support for creating and manipulating databases in MySQL and SQLite among others.Once XAMPP is installed, it is possible to treat a localhost like a remote host by connecting using an FTP client. Using a program like FileZilla has many advantages when installing a content management system (CMS) like Joomla or WordPress. It is also possible to connect to localhost via FTP with an HTML editor. XAMPP 1.8.3-5 for Windows ===================== Apache 2.4.10 MySQL 5.6.20 PHP 5.5.15 phpMyAdmin 4.2.7.1 FileZilla FTP Server 0.9.41 Tomcat 7.0.42 (with mod_proxy_ajp as connector) Strawberry Perl 5.16.3.1 Portable XAMPP Control Panel 3.2.1 (from hackattack142)
Views: 11063 DASARI TUTS
1.Borland C++ 5.02 installation on windows
 
09:45
Borland C++ is a C and C++ programming environment (that is, an integrated development environment) for MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows. It was the successor to Turbo C++, and included a better debugger, the Turbo Debugger, which was written in protected mode DOS. Version History ============= Borland C++ 2.0 - (1991, MS-DOS) Borland C++ 3.0 - (1991) New compiler support to build Microsoft Windows applications. Borland C++ 3.1 - (1992) Introduction of Windows-based IDE and application frameworks (OWL 1.0, Turbovision 1.0) Borland C++ 4.0 - (1993, Windows 3.x) MS-DOS IDE supported no longer, included OWL 2.0. Borland C++ 1.0 - (1992, OS/2) Borland C++ 1.5 - (?, OS/2) Borland C++ 2.0 - (1993, OS/2) Support for 2.1 and Warp 3. OWL 2.0. Included IBM SMART Toolset for automatic migration of Windows applications to OS/2. Last version. Borland C++ 4.01 Borland C++ 4.02 - (1994) Borland C++ 4.5 Borland C++ 4.51 Borland C++ 4.52 - (1995) Official support for Windows 95, OWL 2.5 Borland C++ 4.53 Borland C++ 5.0 - (1996, Windows 95) Released in March 1996. Works on Windows 95 and Windows NT 3.51. It does not (officially) work on Windows NT 4.0 (which was still in development at that time). 3rd party tests exhibited some problems on NT 4.0. It does not work in Windows 3.x or DOS. Despite that, it can produce either Win32, Win16 or DOS programs. Borland C++ 5.01 Borland C++ 5.02 - (1997) Final independent release of the Borland C++ IDE (subsequently replaced up by the C++Builder series), final release to support compilation to (real-mode) MS-DOS target. Windows NT 4.0 officially supported.
Views: 22441 DASARI TUTS
6.Java Int Data Type
 
06:43
Primitive types are the most basic data types available within the Java language. There are 8: boolean, byte, char, short, int, long, float and double. These types serve as the building blocks of data manipulation in Java. Such types serve only one purpose — containing pure, simple values of a kind. Because these data types are defined into the Java type system by default, they come with a number of operations predefined. You can not define a new operation for such primitive types. In the Java type system, there are three further categories of primitives Numeric primitives: short, int, long, float and double. These primitive data types hold only numeric data. Operations associated with such data types are those of simple arithmetic (addition, subtraction, etc.) or of comparisons (is greater than, is equal to, etc.) Textual primitives: byte and char. These primitive data types hold characters (that can be Unicode alphabets or even numbers). Operations associated with such types are those of textual manipulation (comparing two words, joining characters to make words, etc.). However, byte and char can also support arithmetic operations. Boolean and null primitives: boolean and null. With what we have learned so far, we will identify the different types of signed integer values that can be created and manipulated in Java. Following is a table of the most basic numeric types: integers. As we have discussed earlier, the data types in Java for integers caters to both positive and negative values and hence are signed numeric types. The size in bits for a numeric type determines what its minimum and maximum value would be. If in doubt, one can always calculate these values. Lets see how this new found knowledge of the basic integer types in Java fits into the picture. Say, you want to numerically manipulate the days in a year — all 365 days. What type would you use? Since the data type byte only goes up to 127, would you risk giving it a value greater than its allowed maximum. Such decisions might save you from dreaded errors that might occur out of the programmed code. A much more sensible choice for such a numeric operation might be a short. Oh, why couldn't they make just one data type to hold all kinds of numbers? Wouldn't you ask that question? Well, let's explore why. When you tell a program you need to use an integer, say even a byte, the Java program allocates a space in the memory. It allocates whole 8 bits of memory. Where it wouldn't seem to matter for today's memory modules that have place for almost a dozen trillion such bits, it matters in other cases. Once allocated that part of the memory gets used and can only be claimed back after the operation is finished. Consider a complicated Java program where the only data type you'd be using would be long integers. What happens when there's no space for more memory allocation jobs? Ever heard of the Stack Overflow errors. That's exactly what happens — your memory gets completely used up and fast. So, choose your data types with extreme caution.
Views: 121 DASARI TUTS
20.Inputting a double value in java using BufferedReader
 
05:11
There are different ways of taking input in java like: 1) BufferedReader 2) Scanner 3) Command Line Arguments BufferedReader, on the other hand, is a character stream I/O class. Character streams provide a convenient way for input and output in terms of characters (Unicode). BufferedReader is mostly used for taking input from the console, System.in. It takes an InputStreamReader object as an argument. BufferedReader Read text from a character-input stream, buffering characters so as to provide for the efficient reading of characters, arrays, and lines. A BufferedReader is a simple class meant to efficiently read from the underling stream. Generally, each read request made of a Reader like a FileReader causes a corresponding read request to be made to underlying stream. Each invocation of read() or readLine() could cause bytes to be read from the file, converted into characters, and then returned, which can be very inefficient. Efficiency is improved appreciably if a Reader is warped in a BufferedReader.BufferedReader is synchronized, so read operations on a BufferedReader can safely be done from multiple threads. A scanner on the other hand has a lot more cheese built into it; it can do all that a BufferedReader can do and at the same level of efficiency as well. However, in addition a Scanner can parse the underlying stream for primitive types and strings using regular expressions. It can also tokenize the underlying stream with the delimiter of your choice. It can also do forward scanning of the underlying stream disregarding the delimiter!A scanner however is not thread safe, it has to be externally synchronized. The Scanner class is the complement of Formater class (used to convert binary data into formatted text). Scanner reads formatted input and converts it into its binary form. Although it has always been possible to read formatted input, it required more effort than most programmers would prefer. Because of the addition of Scanner, it is now easy to read all types of numeric values, strings and other types of data, whether it comes from a disk file, the keyboard, or another source. Scanner can be used to read input from the console, a file, a string, or any other source that implements the Readable interface or ReadableByteChannel. For example, you can use Scanner to read a number from the keyboard and assign its value to a variable. The choice of using a BufferedReader or a Scanner depends on the code you are writing, if you are writing a simple log reader Buffered reader is adequate. However if you are writing an XML parser Scanner is the more natural choice.Even while reading the input, if want to accept user input line by line and say just add it to a file, a BufferedReader is good enough. On the other hand if you want to accept user input as a command with multiple options, and then intend to perform different operations based on the command and options specified, a Scanner will suit better.
Views: 1472 DASARI TUTS
1.STACK(LIFO) Data Structure in C++
 
24:34
C++ is arguably the most versatile language in common use. C++ allows for both high-performance code as well as expressive abstractions and design constructs. The language is not perfect but it does represent an excellent compromise between these potentially conflicting language capabilities. C++ combines "low-level" programming tailored to specific machine architectures with "high-level" programming, which can allow code to be completely abstracted from any particulars of the machine executing the program.Other languages, such as Java, Python, Smalltalk and C#, allow the programmer to write code in this object-orientated way. The key difference between C++ and these languages is that C++ is designed to be compiled into efficient low-level code which can run directly on the processor of a computer. This ability means that C++ differs in many ways from these other languages, and lacks many of the advanced facilities you might be familiar with if you already know one of them. A stack is a basic data structure that can be logically thought as linear structure represented by a real physical stack or pile, a structure where insertion and deletion of items takes place at one end called top of the stack. The basic concept can be illustrated by thinking of your data set as a stack of plates or books where you can only take the top item off the stack in order to remove things from it. This structure is used all throughout programming.
Views: 2366 DASARI TUTS

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